Frequently Asked Questions

key west orthopedics, fl, florida, physical rehabilitation, sports medicine, spine surgery, arthroscopic surgery, reconstructive surgery, joint replacementHAND AND UPPER BODY EXTREMITIES

What is a torn rotator cuff?
What is shoulder impingement?
What is a dislocated shoulder?
What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
What is tennis elbow?


What is sciatica?
What is spinal stenosis?
What is degenerative disk disease?
What is a bulging, ruptured or herniated disk?
What is radiculopathy or nerve impingement?

key west orthopedics, fl, florida, physical rehabilitation, sports medicine, spine surgery, arthroscopic surgery, reconstructive surgery, joint replacementFOOT, ANKLE AND LOWER EXTREMITIES

What is a torn ACL or MCL?
What is a torn meniscus?
What are shin splints?
What is a ruptured Achilles' tendon?
What is plantar fasciitis or a heel spur?


What is the difference between an X-Ray and an MRI?

X-Rays use radiation to detect bone deterioration or disease as well as fractures, dislocations, infections or tumors. When the radiation passes through the body, objects dense in nature, such as bone, will appear white on X-Ray film whereas less-dense tissue will appear a grayish color.

An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses a magnet and a computer to manipulate the magnetic elements naturally found in organs and tissue. The images created are then viewed as cross sections of the specific body part being scanned. Rather than using radiation (like X-Rays), an MRI uses radiowaves. They are typically used to identify bone or joint ailments.



What is MRI?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a method of looking inside the body without using radiation or surgery. MRI creates remarkably clear pictures of our human anatomy, using harmless magnetism and radio waves to produce images. In the past, an MRI scan may have required you to be inside a tunnel-like enclosure that was often physically, and sometimes emotionally, uncomfortable. Now "Open"-MRI technology provides precise images with much greater physical freedom and no unpleasant sense of confinement. In fact, our system is so open that we are able to provide music for your listening pleasure as well as relaxing aromatherapy while you are being scanned.

How should I prepare for my MRI?
Preparing for your MRI is very simple. Just follow your usual routine, including taking any medications you normally take and following your usual eating schedule. It is recommended, however, that you cut back on caffeine consumption. You may wear your clothes during the exam. Personal clothing must not consist of any metal objects such as metal zippers, snaps, clasps, or trim. Sweat pants or workout clothes are good examples of acceptable clothing. If you prefer, a hospital gown will be provided. The only unusual preparation is that all removable metallic items must be left outside the scanning room, including removable hearing aids, dentures, and any prosthetic devices.

What happens when I get scanned?
One of our trained MRI professionals will help you into position on the scanner bed. This bed slides directly into the scanner. A special antenna or coil designed to detect your body's MRI signals will be placed on or around you near the area to be scanned. Once you are comfortably positioned in the scanner, all you need to do is relax, and lie as still as possible.

At any time during the scan, you will be able to talk to one of our staff who will be able to hear and see you. You may also have a companion stay in the scanning room with you throughout the scan, if you'd like. The procedure will take from 30 to 60 minutes, depending on the type of scan your doctor ordered. Immediately after the scan, you can resume all normal activities. Infrequently, certain types of scans require the use of a contrast agent. If your doctor has ordered this type of scan, a staff member will explain the contrast agent, and answer any questions you may have.

How will I know the results of my MRI?
Your MRI will be interpreted by a board-certified radiologist who specializes in the reading of MRI images. They will then report their findings to your physician. Your doctor will then discuss your results with you at your next appointment.

What are the risks of MRI?
Because MRI uses low-energy, non-ionizing radio waves, there are no known risks or side effects. In fact since the technique uses no radiation, it can be repeated with no known adverse effects.

While there are no known hazards, MRI is not proven to be safe during pregnancy. If a pregnant woman must undergo an MRI, she will be asked to sign a special consent form.

The magnet at the center of the procedure may affect, or be affected by, any person fitted with a pacemaker or other non-removable electrical device. It is important that people with such devices advise the physician or technologist. They are generally NOT advised to have an MRI.

Key West Orthopedics is proud to have on staff: Dr. Catana and Dr. Perry to provide you with all your MRI needs.






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What is a torn rotator cuff?

The rotator cuff serves to stabilize the shoulder joint and assists in raising and rotating your arms. It is made up of tendons and muscles that help keep the shoulder and upper arm bone securely in the socket of the shoulder blade.

What is shoulder impingement?

Impingement occurs when the bones and tissues in the upper arm are improperly aligned. Conditions such as tendonitis, bursitis and arthritis are all related to impingement. If the rotator cuff is overused or there is a bone deformity, it can become inflamed. This inflaming will cause the space between the shoulder blade and upper arm to narrow. This narrowing will, in turn, cause the rotator cuff to be squeezed or pinched. Once this happens you will feel pain or irritation whenever the shoulder is raised.

What is a dislocated shoulder?

A shoulder is considered dislocated when the upper end of the arm bone detaches from the shoulder joint.

What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome consists of a number of symptoms typically in the hand or fingers. These symptoms consist of numbness, tingling, weakness or pain. Carpal tunnel can develop after repetitive hand motions that can, over time, damage muscle and bone in the wrist.

What is tennis elbow?

Tennis elbow refers to an inflammation of the tendon that connects the muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand to the upper arm at the elbow. Irritation usually occurs due to overexertion during physical activity.

What is sciatica?

Sciatica is a condition that comes from an impingement in the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is found in the lower back and runs down the leg, controlling leg muscles. Sciatica can cause pain or numbness/tingling in the leg. This typically stems form a herniated disk or spinal stenosis.

What is spinal stenosis?

Spinal stenosis occurs when the disks of cartilage that separate the vertebrae in the spine lose water and causes the space between the vertebrae to become smaller. As the space decreases, friction between the bones increases. The spine then becomes unable to stand daily wear and tear with the loss of these shock absorbers. As the disks degenerate the vertebrae may shift and cause the spinal canal to narrow. This will, sometimes, cause the nerves that travel through the spinal column to become squeezed causing leg and back pains or weakness.

What is degenerative disk disease?

This typically refers to back pain that has lasted for longer than three months. It is caused by changes in the intervertebral disks in the spine. After the age of 30, the disks, which were once soft and acted as cushions, begin to erode and lose their density. Their ability to cushion lessens causing an alteration in the position of the vertebrae and, sometimes, a shift in their positions. As the vertebrae shift, they can affect other bones causing nerves to get caught or pinched.

What is a bulging/ruptured/herniated disk?

A bulging disk is when the disk that separates the spinal vertebrae is compressed and intrudes into the spinal canal.

A ruptured disk is when the tissue located in the center of the disk is forced outward. Strong pressure on a disk in that condition can force a fragment of the disk to rupture the outer layer of the disk. This is also referred to as a herniated disk.

If the disk fragment moves into the spinal canal and interferes with the spinal nerve it can begin to cause pain. An injured disk in the lower back can cause pain in the lower back, leg or foot whereas the same condition in the neck can produce pain in the shoulder, arm or hand.

What is radiculopathy/nerve impingement?

Radiculopathy is a condition also refered to as having a "pinched nerve." It is where the spinal nerve roots have become irritated or compressed. Lumbar nerve impingement is used when the nerve roots in the lower spine are involved whereas cervical radiculopathy refers to the nerve roots in the neck. This is all typically cased by a herniated disk or spinal stenosis.

What is a torn ACL? MCL?

The ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and the MCL (medial collateral ligament) are ligaments in the knee that assist in the function of the knee.

A torn ACL occurs when the knee is straightened beyond its limitations, twisted or bent side to side. This is very common in sports.

A torn MCL will occur when an outside force pushes the knee inward.

What are shin splints?

This is a common ailment among runners caused by stress relating to running on hard surfaces. Pain and swelling in the front of the lower leg are typical signs of shin splints. Shin splints refer to an inflammation of the periosteum, which is a fibrous casing that surrounds the bone.

What is a torn meniscus?

A torn meniscus will typically occur when, while the foot is planted firmly on the ground, the knee is twisted. The meniscus is a disk of tough tissue that lies between the upper and lower leg bone.

What is plantar fasciitis (heel spur)?

A heel spur (a bony growth found on the heel bone) typically occurs when the long ligament found on the bottom of the foot gets inflamed due to a tear usually resulting from stretching. This irritation is usual a result of a walking condition where the walker abnormally twists their foot inward as they walk (pronation).

Plantar Fasciitis is the most familiar cause of heal pain.

What is a ruptured Achilles tendon?

The Achilles tendon connects the muscles in the lower leg or calf to the heel bone. Every time you move your foot, the Achilles stretches or tightens accordingly. Because they are used so much, it is common for the tendon to tear due to overuse or overexertion. Ruptures usually happen as a result of sudden movements, overstretching, energetic exercise or an untreated case of tendonitis in the Achilles.

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